Year : 2014  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 104-107

Usefulness of desmoglein 1 and 3 in serodiagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with disease activity - ELISA study

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 320 Field Hospital, Ambala, Punjab, India
4 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maharishi Markandeshwar College of Dental Sciences and Research, Maulana, Ambala, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Neha Gandhi
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-8844.143051

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Background: Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease with three subtypes, which includes pemphigus vulgaris (PV), pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and paraneoplastic pemphigus (PP), which are characterized by circulating autoantibodies to the desmosomal glycoproteins desmoglein 3 (Dsg 3) and Dsg 1. Detection and quantification of these antibodies can be useful in diagnosis of PV. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practical application of ELISAs for diagnosis of PV based on immunological reactivity of Dsg 1 and Dsg3. Materials and Methods: Based on clinical presentation and histopathologic confirmation, 10 patients previously diagnosed of PV were included in the study, out of which, five were with active lesions and five were under medication and hence were at remission stages. Sera of the patients were tested for Dsg 1 and Dsg 3 titres by Desmoglien enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Results: Desmoglien ELISA was positive in all the patients, with higher values of Dsg antibody titers in patients with active disease. Dsg 3 titers exceeded the cut off value in patients with oral lesions and titers of both Dsg 1 and Dsg 3 were greater than cut value in patients with mucocutaneous involvement. Conclusion: Thus, the Dsg 1 and Dsg 3 provided objective and quantitative data which allowed differentiation of PV, and in view of these advantages; they are likely to become a routine technique in diagnostic laboratories.

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