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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2022
Volume 14 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 79-148

Online since Tuesday, January 10, 2023

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Diabetes, Chronic Kidney Disease, Hypertension, and Tram-Track Vessels − A Vicious Chain p. 79
Ali Z Syed, Muralidhar Mupparapu
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Comparative Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Two Novel Herbal Intracanal Medicaments on Human Periodontal Fibroblasts—An In Vitro Study p. 81
Sheetal Basavaraj Ghivari, Nagnath Meena, Kishore Gajanana Bhat, Deepa Vithal Babji, Vijay Mahadev Kumbar, Perama Malleshwara Rao
Introduction: Intracanal medicaments used during root canal treatment comes in direct contact with cells of pulp and periapical tissues. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxic effect of two novel herbal intracanal medicaments Ganoderma lucidum (GL), Psidium gujava (PG) on human periodontal fibroblasts (HPF) by evaluating cell viability using Methyl Thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT assay). Materials and methods: Temperature modulated in situ gel matrix of G. lucidum (GL, P. guajava L (PG) along with positive control calcium hydroxide (CH) and modified triple antibiotic paste (MTAP) was prepared by mixing carbapol and pluronic F-127. All four medicaments were serially tested at various concentrations from 400 to 12.5 µg/mL for six times on Human periodontal Fibroblasts (HPF) for their viability using MTT assay and evaluation of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) after 48 hours. Results: The novel thermo reversible gel matrix of GL has shown lowest cytotoxicity followed by PG, CH, and MTAP. The cytotoxicity was minimal at lower concentration (12.5 µg/mL) and at increased concentration cytotoxicity was higher (400 µg/mL). The IC50 concentration of GL was highest (1681 µg/mL) followed by PG (1555 µg/mL), CH (1295 µg/mL), and MTAP (665 µg/mL). Conclusion: Novel thermo reversible gel matrix of GL and PG were found to be less toxic than CH and MTAP and also they have shown higher cell viability.
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Antibacterial Activity of Robusta Coffee (Coffea robusta) Husk Extract Against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus: In Vitro Study p. 88
Arlin R Kusumawardani, Andi M Machbub, Rendra C Prasetya, Nadie Fatimatuzzahro, Tantin Ermawati
Introduction: Caries is a tooth and oral illness caused by Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria. The growth of caries-causing bacteria can be controlled by using 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash to control plaque, however long-term usage of 0.2% chlorhexidine causes negative effects. Natural components such as robusta coffee (Coffea robusta) husk, which possesses active compounds of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, and saponins as alternative antibacterials, can be used to reduce adverse effects. The aim of this research is to assess the antibacterial activity of robusta coffee husk extract against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The robusta coffee husk was extracted using the maceration process with 96% ethanol as the solvent. Antibacterial test is conducted against S. mutans and L. acidophilus using disc diffusion method (Kirby-Baurer) with six treatment groups of extract concentration 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg/mL, positive control (0.2% chlorhexidine), and negative control (aquades steril). The zone of inhibition was measured in millimetres using a digital calliper (mm). The SPSS application was used to examine the calculation findings, which included the Shapiro-Wilk, Levene, One Way ANOVA, and Post Hoc LSD tests. Results: Robusta coffee husk extract at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL doses shown bactericidal activity in S. mutans (radical zone) and bacteriostatic activity in L. acidophilus (irradical zone). Conclusion: Robusta coffee husk extract has an antibacterial activity against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. The highest inhibition zone was demonstrated by the 1000 mg/mL concentration of extract.
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A Comparative Evaluation of Apically Extruded Debris using Three Rotary and One Reciprocating Instrumentation Ni‑Ti Systems: An in Vitro Study p. 93
Maha Adnan Habeeb
Introduction: Chemomechanical preparation of root aims to eliminate the inflamed and necrotic tissue with infected dentine. This process may produce some debris extruded apically. The aim of our study was to compare and to assess the amount debris extruded apically by using four different single files systems. Materials and methods: Forty mandibular premolars which were cut to the cementoenamel junction with a diamond disk to similar lengths. Glass vials were pre-weighed and used to collect debris. The samples were divided into four groups: Group A (HyFlex EDM), Group B (AF Blue S-One), Group C (WaveOne Gold) and Group D (XPS). We used distilled water for irrigation. All canals were prepared to the size #25, then the vials were placed in hot air oven at 180°C for 5 h for evaporation of debris. Then vials containing dry debris were weighed again. The final mass of the extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the weight of initial empty vial from vial containing dry debris. ANOVA and LSD tests were applied to analyse data. Results: According to the results obtained in this study, all the tested files caused extrusion of debris apically. A highly significant difference was observed between all groups (P < 0.01). The highest value for debris extrusion was observed in rotary HyFlex EDM (0.03693 gm), whereas reciprocating C group (WaveOne Gold) showed the lowest value (0.01938 gm). Conclusion: The continuous rotary files caused less debris when compared with reciprocating one. Also all systems caused some degree of apical extrusion.
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Estimation of Matrix Metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) Levels in Children with Early Childhood Caries p. 100
Ngangbam Reenayai, Manju Raman Nair
Introduction: The primal incidence of dental caries is from the childhood. To assess the levels of salivary MMP-9 in children with Early Childhood Caries following caries control. Materials and Methods: 45 children between the age group of 3-5 years were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 15 each. Group A was the control group. The salivary samples were collected before any treatments in ECC (Group B) and S-ECC (Group C), following which caries control measures were done. Following 2 weeks of post-treatment, the saliva samples were collected from experimental Groups and tested for salivary MMP-9, pH, and viscosity levels. Results: The mean value of the salivary MMP-9, pH, and viscosity levels estimated in the control group of children was 7.13 ng/ml (±0.809 mg/ml), 7.06 (±0.338), and 0.41 (±0.072) respectively. The pre-treatment salivary MMPs, pH, and viscosity levels estimated in Group B were 10.95 ng/ml (±1.469 ng/ml), 7.07 (±0.403), and 1.74 (±0.412) respectively, and in Group C these values were 18.55 ng/ml (±9.218ng/ml), 6.92 (±0.542) and 1.28 (±0.123) respectively. The post-treatment salivary MMP-9, pH and viscosity levels estimated in Group B were 7.34 ng/ml (±0.673 ng/ml), 7.24 (±0.394), and 0.42 (±0.208) respectively and in Group C these values were 7.84 ng/ml (±0.647 ng/ml), 7.14 (±0.377) and 0.49 (±0.338), respectively after 2 weeks. Conclusion: The salivary MMP-9 and viscosity levels in groups B and C decreased significantly 2 weeks following caries control. The Salivary MMP-9 level is a good diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for comparing the efficacy of various caries control treatment protocols. comparing the efficacy of various caries control treatment protocols.
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Emerging Trend of Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Patients Less than 40 Years: A Molecular Analysis of Role of HPV in Cases with No Known Risk Factors p. 107
Priyanka Nair, Usha Hegde, Sreeshyla Huchanahalli Sheshanna, Sunila Ravi
Introduction: Traditional risk factors causing oral and oropharyngeal cancers have been extensively studied in elderly populations. But recent evidences have shown it to be rising in young individuals with no known risk factors. Human Papilloma virus (HPV) is a proven etiologic factor for cervical cancer and has been suggested in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Hence the objective of the study was to evaluate the role of HPV as a risk factor in OSCC and OPSCC patients of less than 40 years of age without known risk factors. Material and Methods: Fifteen years of retrospective data were used for recording the age, gender, site, and various risk factors in patients ≤40 years of age diagnosed histopathologically with primary OSCC and OPSCC. Role of HPV in patients without any known risk factors were evaluated with p16 Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Ninety eight patients aged ≤40 years of age were obtained with known and no known risk factors. Among the habitual risk factors, alcohol did not prove to be a significant factor. Female patients with mean age of 34 years were more prone, though they were not subjected to any of the known risk factors. Tongue and buccal mucosa were the most common sites affected. Role of HPV as a risk factor was found positive. All cases of PCR positive were IHC positive and IHC showed 100% sensitivity and 68.4% specificity. Conclusion: A strong correlation of HPV with OSCC and OPSCC in adults ≤40 years of age was established in the present study.
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Assessment of Dental Age Estimation Using Aspartic Acid Racemization in Human Dentin in Single-Rooted Teeth p. 114
Neelima Dasarathi, Kiran Kumar Kattappagari, Venkata Suresh Ponnuru, Ravi Teja Chitturi Suryaprakash, Arvind Babu Santhosh, Baddam Venkat Ramana Reddy
Introduction: Dental age estimation has always been a very important and very susceptible subject in forensic science, as it is an essential requirement in living, dead human individual’s remains. Aspartic acid racemization is considered to be one of the advanced, reliable, accurate, and complex biochemical methods. There will be an amendment of Levo aspartic acid to dexto aspartic acid when the age advances. To estimate the dental age of single-rooted teeth using aspartic acid racemization. Material and Methods: Thirty anterior teeth were collected from maxillary and mandibular arches distributed into four groups. All teeth were analyzed for Levo (l) and Dextro (d) form of aspartic acid using a high-performance liquid chromatography technique and the ratio of amino acid racemization for each sample was determined. The obtained data were subjected to step-wise linear regression analysis for the ratio of d and l aspartic acid against actual age with estimated age. Results: Distribution of teeth about age maximum samples was collected at 51 to 60 years. l-aspartic acid ratio was more in the younger age group but when the age increases d-aspartic acid ratio was increased. Linear regression analysis showed maximum samples showed very close to the actual age (30%). Conclusion: By analyzing the levels of aspartic acid using amino acid racemization, we can estimate an individual with maximum accuracy. Accretion of d-aspartic acid in dentin is synchronous with the aging of an individual and this method can be used as one of the precise methods for dental age estimation.
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Microbiological Evaluation of the Antibacterial Vicryl Suture in the Mandibular Third Molar Extraction Surgery p. 120
Milad Etemadi Sh, Sameen Rahgozar, Golnaz Tajmiri, Javad Alizargar, Sayed Arash Mirsatari
Introduction: Suture materials selection and application have gained more importance, especially with the increasing number of patients seeking oral surgeries. Since lying in a bacterial-filled environment, sutures make the tissue prone to infection. Suture material plays an essential role in reducing the risk of infection. This study aimed to assess the success rate of an antibacterial suture, Vicryl Plus (Ethicon Inc, Johnson and Johnson Company, Somerville, NJ), in preventing bacterial growth in the surgical site of the mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods: About 27 patients were included in this double-blinded randomized clinical trial study. Surgical extraction of the mandibular wisdom tooth was done, and the incision was managed by randomly using Vicryl Plus and Vicryl (Ethicon Inc) sutures. After 7 days, sutures were removed and assessed microbiologically. Indicator species of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were assessed, and the total number of colonies on each suture was counted. Results: There was a significant difference between the two suture materials in the colony number-length ratio of Lactobacillus (P = 0.031) and total bacterial colonies (P = 0.016), but not for S. mutans species (P = 0.201). Conclusion: Antibacterial Vicryl suture can be a useful tool to reduce bacterial accumulation on the suture material in third molar extraction surgery.
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Comparison of Retention Characteristics of Clear bow Hawley’s and Vacuum Formed Retainers—A Randomized Controlled Trial p. 128
Sowmithra Devi, Ravindra Kumar Jain
Introduction: Retention is an important stage of orthodontic treatment which involves maintaining the teeth in the corrected position. The aim of this trial was to compare the retentive capacity of Clear bow Hawley (CBR) and Vacuum formed retainer (VFR) 1 year after completion of orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial included 46 subjects who were treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and were advised to use removable orthodontic retainers. The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups, group 1–23 subjects who received CBRs and group 2–23 subjects who received VFRs. Retainers were advised immediately after debonding and patients were recalled after 1 year. Lateral cephalograms and intraoral scans were taken and certain parameters (inter canine, intermolar width, little’s irregularity index, arch length) were evaluated. Descriptive statistics and paired t-test were done to determine and compare the retentive capacity of the retainers. Results: No statistically significant relapse was noted and no differences between retainers for inter canine, intermolar width, arch length, little’s irregularity index, and cephalometric changes were noted (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Both the CBRs and VFRs are equally effective in retaining the corrected malocclusion, CBRs can be considered as a very good alternative to VFRs.
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In-vitro Antioxidant and In-vitro Anti-inflammatory activities of Ethanolic leaves extract of Ormocarpum Cochinchinense p. 134
Gayathri Somashekar, Uma Sudhakar, Poonudurai Sameul Gnana Prakash, Snophia Suresh, Seshadri Srividya, Sumathi Hanumantha Rao
Introduction: Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease with microbial etiology, is mediated by multiple inflammatory processes and oxidative stress is now well recognized as a part of periodontal pathogenesis. A balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants is required to maintain periodontal health. Medicinal herbs with bioactive phytocompounds have rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. Ormocarpum cochinchinense is a medicinal herb with antioxidants and anti-inflammatory phytocompounds. The phytocompounds activities of the herb are not much explored. This study is focused on the In-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of leaves of O. cochinchinense. To assess the In-vitro antioxidant and In-vitro anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extracts of O. cochinchinense. Materials and Methods: The leaves of O. cochinchinense were collected, air dried in the shade, and then powdered in an electric blender. The preparation of ethanolic extract was carried out. In-vitro antioxidant studies using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Nitric Oxide (NO) assays along with anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation inhibition and membrane stabilization method were studied. Descriptive statistics were used for continuous variables and expressed in mean and standard deviation. One way ANOVA with post-hoc tukey test or Kruskal–Wallis test, Post-hoc Mann–Whitney U test was used according to the normal distribution of the sample. To compare the individual study group against their standard group, independent t test, and Mann–Whitney U test have been used. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: O. cochinchinense had significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanolic extract showed dose-dependant activity in all analyses performed (P < 0.05). NO inhibition assay showed 95% of antioxidant activity and 80% of anti-inflammatory activity in the Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) Membrane Stabilization assay. Conclusions: O. cochinchinense could be used as an adjuvant supplement to conventional therapy in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.
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A Study to Evaluate and Compare the Dimensional Stability of Aluwax upon Moist Heat and Dry Heat Treatment at Different Time Intervals p. 141
Vinita Rajesh Sippy, Chethan Hegde
Introduction: The key to a successful prosthesis is the accurate transfer of the maxillo–mandibular relationship to an articulator.Evaluating and comparing the dimensional stability of Aluwax upon moist heat and dry heat treatment at different time intervals. In vitro study. Materials and methods: A total of 26 samples were included and were divided into two groups based on the heat treatment of Aluwax. Thirteen Aluwax bite wafers were manipulated using moist heat treatment and 13 with dry heat treatment. Dimensional changes were recorded using stereomicroscope at intervals of 0, 24, and 48 hours. The level of significance was fixed at 5%, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was employed to test the normality of data. Kruskal Wallis test, post hoc analysis, and independent sample t test were performed for the quantitative variables. Results: The dimensional changes upon moist heat treatment at 0, 24, and 48 hours were 0.043 ± 0.011, 0.036 ± 0.009, and 0.0320 ± 0.008, respectively and upon dry heat treatment were 0.027 ± 0.010, 0.023 ± 0.009, and 0.0165 ± 0.009, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, dry heat treatment of Aluwax showed less dimensional changes as compared to moist heat treatment. Maximum change was noted immediately following moist heat manipulation; storage up to 48 hours did not induce any further increase in distortion.
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