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REVIEW ARTICLES
Biological role of lectins: A review
K Kiran Kumar, K Lalith Prakash Chandra, J Sumanthi, G Sridhar Reddy, P Chandra Shekar, BVR Reddy
January-June 2012, 4(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.99883  
Lectins comprise a stracturally vary diverse class of proteins charecterized by their ability to selectively bind carbohydrate moieties of the glycoproteins of the cell surface. Lectins may be derived from plants, microbial or animal sources and may be soluble or membrane bound. Lectins is a tetramer made up of four nearly identical subunits. In human, lectins have been reported to cause food poisoning, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, digestive distress, protein and carbohydrate malabsorption and type I allergies. The present review focuses on the classification, structures, biological significance and application of lectins.
  27 18,293 2,994
Role of antioxidants in facilitating the body functions: A review
Kiran Kumar Kattappagari, CS Ravi Teja, Radhika Kalyani Kommalapati, Chandrashekar Poosarla, Sridhar Reddy Gontu, Baddam Venkata Ramana Reddy
July-December 2015, 7(2):71-75
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.169745  
The cell damage will cause the release of free radicals. These free radicals will play an important role in any bioactive process of the cells. Antioxidants are one of the important components which plays a critical role to maintain the cell functioning and integrity of the cells. Antioxidants play an important role against the reactive oxygen species and maintain the normal activity of the cell. Antioxidants are preventing the free radical configuration tissue damage by preventing the formation of radicals or promoting their breakdown of free radical species. The review article explains the role of antioxidants in normal healthy conditions as well as diseases.
  14 17,899 2,900
Apoptosis: Molecular mechanism
Dipak D Ghatage, Suchitra R Gosavi, Sindhu M Ganvir, Vinay K Hazarey
July-December 2012, 4(2):103-107
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.106199  
Cell death is one of the essential processes. Balance between cell division and cell death is of utmost importance for the development and maintenance of multi-cellular organism. Disorders of either process have pathologic consequences and can lead to disturbed embryogenesis, neurodegerative diseases, or the development of cancers. This article reviews the apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic molecules along with molecular pathways, which may alter in many diseases.
  11 10,711 1,055
Adverse affects of drugs on saliva and salivary glands
Vidhi Vinayak, Rajeshwari G Annigeri, Hashikesh A Patel, Sachin Mittal
January-June 2013, 5(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.113684  
Saliva is the most valuable oral fluid is critical to the preservation and management of oral health. Saliva containing various organic and inorganic substances provides primary natural protection for teeth and soft tissues in the oral cavity assists in mastication, deglutition and digestion of food. The secretion of saliva can be affected due to various local and systemic causes. However if a patient is taking medication and has altered salivary secretion the differential diagnosis should include the possibility of an adverse drug reaction. The drugs may lead to alteration in the flow rate of saliva, which can be either increased or reduced, however certain drugs have been reported to cause change in the color of the saliva. Several drugs may lead to sialadenitis associated with altered salivary secretion. These symptoms may simulate systemic diseases, Hence oral physicians need to be vigilant in recognizing these adverse drug reactions in the patients and it is incumbent upon the practitioner to try to stay abreast of this ever evolving field especially as it relates to dental therapeutics.
  8 53,442 2,051
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Topical application of green tea polyphenol (−) epigallocatechin-3-gallate for prevention of recurrent oral neoplastic lesions
Angela J Yoon, Jing Shen, Regina M Santella, Elizabeth M Philipone, Hui-Chen Wu, Sidney B Eisig, Andrew Blitzer, Lanny G Close, David J Zegarelli
January-June 2012, 4(1):43-50
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.99891  
Objective: A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using an oral cancer chemopreventive agent (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most biologically active component in the green tea extract, in a form of "swish-and-spit" mouthwash. Such application of EGCG is beneficial as it maximizes exposure of the oral mucosa to the agent but minimizes systemic side effect. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on individuals suspected to have oral field cancerization who are at a high risk for developing recurrent oral precancerous and carcinomatous lesions. EGCG was used as a daily mouthwash for 7 days. EGCG's ability to modulate target molecules implicated in oral carcinogenesis was assessed by measuring the change in the expression levels of biomarkers. Results: Immunohistochemical expressions of phosphoactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), and ki-67 were evaluated at baseline and at the endpoint (day 8). Although not statistically significant, overall decrease in expression levels of pEGFR (27.5%), cox-2 (15.9%), and ki-67 positive cells (51.8%) was observed following EGCG treatment. Moreover, a detectable level of EGCG was found in saliva but not in plasma after the 1-week treatment regime, demonstrating local availability of EGCG in oral mucosa without significant systemic absorption. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explore use of oral cancer chemopreventive agent in the form of mouthwash in patients with oral field cancerization. Although a definitive conclusion was not reached due to limited sample size, if proven effective, EGCG therapy may offer a non-invasive preventive modality for oral field cancerization.
  7 3,350 352
Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer: A comparative study
Shubha Gurudath, Raghavendra Mahadev Naik, KS Ganapathy, Yadavalli Guruprasad, D Sujatha, Anuradha Pai
July-December 2012, 4(2):114-119
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.106202  
Objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate and compare erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, oral cancer patients, and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: E-SOD and GPx levels were estimated in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer patients with 25 subjects in each group. The results obtained were compared with the corresponding age-/sex- matched control groups. Results: Statistically significant ( P < 0.001) decrease in E-SOD and GPx levels were observed in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer groups as compared to the control group. Oral leukoplakia group showed lower levels in comparison with OSF ( P > 0.05). Oral cancer group had the lowest levels amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Imbalance in antioxidant enzyme status may be considered as one of the factors responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target to reduce the malignant transformation in oral premalignant lesions/conditions.
  7 11,291 780
Comparative evaluation of Nano-hydroxyapatite and casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the remineralization potential of early enamel lesions: An in vitro study
Anshul Sharma, Arathi Rao, Ramya Shenoy, Baranya S Suprabha
January-June 2017, 9(1):28-33
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.207941  
Background: Benefits of remineralizing agents in a wide variety of formulations have been proved beneficial in caries management. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) nanocomplex has been recommended and used as remineralizing agent. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) is one of the most biocompatible and bioactive material having wide range of application in dentistry, but does it excel better compared to CPP-ACP. Aims: To evaluate and compare the remineralizing efficiency of the paste containing hydroxyapatite and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. Settings and Design: The study was an in vitro single blinded study with lottery method of randomization approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Materials and methods: 30 non carious premolar teeth. The teeth were demineralized and divided into 2 groups and subjected to remineralization. The samples were analysed for surface hardness and mineral content. Statistical Analysis: Student t’ test and repeated measures of ANOVA was applied. Results: Average hardness in Nano-hydroxyapatite group increased to 340 ± 31.70 SD and 426 ± 50.62 SD for 15 and 30 days respectively and that of (CPP–ACP), 355.83 ± 38.55 SD and 372.67 ± 53.63 SD. The change in the hardness values was not statistically significant with P value of 0.39 (P > 0.05). Calcium and Phosphorous levels increased in both the groups but was not significant. Conclusion: Both the agents used are effective in causing remineralization of enamel. Nano-hydroxyapatite is more effective as compared to Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, in increasing the Calcium and Phosphorus content of enamel, and this effect is more evident over a longer treatment period. Key Message: Remineralizing agents are a boon for caries management. With the advent of many formulations it is difficult to clinically select the agent. This study compares the remineralizing potential of Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex and Nano-hydroxyapatite and found that both are effective as remineralizing agents.
  7 3,753 587
CASE REPORTS
Giant Sialolith in the Wharton's duct causing sialo-oral fistula: A case report and review of literature
Harish Saluja, Vikrant O Kasat, Uma Mahindra
July-December 2012, 4(2):137-142
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.106214  
Sialolithiasis is the most common salivary gland disease accounting for more than 50% of the cases. Majority of salivary calculi occur in the submandibular gland and its duct. It has male predilection and is often seen in adults. Majority of the calculi are less than 10 mm in size. Calculi > 15 mm in size are considered giant. Giant sialoliths within the parenchyma of the salivary glands are frequently reported in the literature, but they are uncommon in the salivary ducts. The purpose of this article is to report a case of giant sialolith in the Wharton's duct of a 65-year-old male, which had caused sialo-oral fistula. Literature in English language on "giant sialolith in Wharton's duct" is reviewed since 1990. Also etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and management aspects are discussed.
  6 10,219 477
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical evaluation of class II composite: Resin restorations placed by two different bulk-fill techniques
Rahaf M Alkurdi, Souad A Abboud
January-June 2016, 8(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.181926  
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical performance of class II composite resin restorations placed by two different bulk-fill techniques according to the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Materials and Methods: Sixty class II restorations were placed in 60 patients in the age range of 20-50 years. The patients were divided into three groups according to the technique of the restoration were applied. Group 1: Tetric Evo Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) was placed in 2 mm increments. Group 2: Tertic N Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent) was placed in single increment. Group 3: Sonic Fill (Kerr, Kavo) was placed in single increment by sonic vibration. The restorations were evaluated using modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then after 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months. Results: After 12 months, 58 Class II restorations could be observed. Two cases were dropped out. All the restorations of the three groups showed acceptable clinical performance according to the modified USPHS criteria, and statistically there were no significant differences between the two bulk-fill techniques. Conclusion: Both the bulk-fill techniques performed satisfactorily over the 12-month observation period. Due to the low viscosity of Sonic Fill, it may preponderance Tertic N Ceram Bulk Fill in the regard to depth of cure and marginal integrity and marginal discoloration.
  6 3,860 662
Liquid dish washing soap: An excellent substitute for xylene and alcohol in hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure
Surekha Ramulu, Anila Koneru, Shamala Ravikumar, Priyadarshini Sharma, D. N. S. V Ramesh, Ramesh Patil
January-June 2012, 4(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.99890  
Aims: Liquid dish washing solution (DWS) was used as a substitute for xylene to dewax tissue sections during hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining. The aim was to test and compare the hypothesis that xylene-ethanol free (XEF) sections deparaffinized with diluted DWS are better than or at par with the conventional H and E sections. Materials and Methods: Fifty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks was included. One section was stained with conventional HandE (group A) and the other with XEF HandE (group B) staining method. Slides were scored for parameters: nuclear, cytoplasmic, clarity, uniformity, and crispness of staining. Z test was used for statistical analysis. For accuracy of diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were tested. Results: Adequate nuclear staining was noted in 94% in group A and 96% in group B, ­adequate cytoplasmic staining in 92% in group A and 86% in group B, clarity in 94% of group A and 96% of group B sections, uniform staining in 92% of group A and 80% of group B sections, crisp stain in 96% of group A and 88% of group B sections, and 94% of group A sections stained adequately for diagnosis as compared with 90% in group B sections. Conclusion: Liquid DWS can be used as an alternative and effective substitute to xylene and ethanol in routine HandE staining procedure.
  5 9,675 881
Early childhood caries and its correlation with maternal education level and socio-economic status
Shalu Verma Bhardwaj, Amit Bhardwaj
January-June 2014, 6(1):53-57
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.132582  
Objectives: This study was carried out to correlate the relationship between early childhood caries and maternal education level and socio-economic status (SES). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 500 pairs of children of ≤6 years age and their mothers, who reported to the private dental clinic in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. The association between mother's educational level and SES of the family were estimated through a self-structured questionnaire. Caries status of the children was estimated using deft index (World Health Organization criteria). Results: Collected data was statistically analyzed. There was an inverse relationship between the education level of mothers and caries status of their children. There was no relationship between the SES of mothers and caries status of their children. Conclusion: It was concluded that, mothers are responsible for their children primary oral health.
  5 3,965 598
CASE REPORTS
Versatility of diode lasers in low-level laser therapy for the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis
Butchi Babu, Uday Kiran Uppada, Bassel Tarakji, Khaja Amjad Hussain, Saleh Nasser Azzeghaibi, Ibrahim Alzoghaibi
January-June 2015, 7(1):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.157392  
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a painful condition, often leading to impairment of the basic functions such as mastication, speech, and brushing. Several treatment modalities have been advocated in the past, but none hasve been proven efficacious. A novel treatment modality in the form of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has evolved in recent years. LLLT also known as "cold laser" works on the principle of biostimulation. This biomodulatory effect plays a pivotal role in accelerating the healing process and provides analgesia. Hence, it constitutes an alternative to processes that present pain and inflammatory reaction. The present series of cases throw light regarding the use of diode laser for LLLT as an effective and quick tool in the painless management of recurrent aphthous ulcers.
  4 3,822 428
GUEST EDITORIAL
Burden of oral cancer: An Indian scenario
Lingamaneni Krishna Prasad
July-December 2014, 6(2):77-77
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.143043  
  4 5,651 4,714
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Periodontal diseases and pregnancy
Shilpa Trivedi, Nand Lal, Rameshwari Singhal
January-June 2015, 7(1):67-68
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.157408  
  4 1,509 223
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
OCT4 and SOX2 are reliable markers in detecting stem cells in odontogenic lesions
Abhishek Banerjee, Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath, Lavanya Sundaram, Shruthi S Krishnamurthy
January-June 2016, 8(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.181920  
Context (Background): Stem cells are a unique subpopulation of cells in the human body with a capacity to initiate differentiation into various cell lines. Tumor stem cells (TSCs) are a unique subpopulation of cells that possess the ability to initiate a neoplasm and sustain self-renewal. Epithelial stem cell (ESC) markers such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) are capable of identifying these stem cells expressed during the early stages of tooth development. Aims: To detect the expression of the stem cell markers OCT4 and SOX2 in the normal odontogenic tissues and the odontogenic cysts and tumors. Materials and Methods: Paraffin sections of follicular tissue, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, and ameloblastic carcinoma were obtained from the archives. The sections were subjected to immunohistochemical assay by the use of mouse monoclonal antibodies to OCT4 and SOX2. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Results: The results show the presence of stem cells in the normal and lesional tissues with these stem cell identifying markers. SOX2 was found to be more consistent and reliable in the detection of stem cells. Conclusion: The stem cell expressions are maintained in the tumor transformation of tissue and probably suggest that there is no phenotypic change of stem cells in progression from normal embryonic state to its tumor component. The quantification and localization reveals interesting trends that indicate the probable role of the cells in the pathogenesis of the lesions.
  4 3,000 517
Detection and prevalence of Capnocytophaga in periodontal Health and disease
Pushpa S Pudakalkatti, Abhinav S Baheti, Sanjeevini A Hattarki, Soumya S Kambali, Reshma M Naik
July-December 2016, 8(2):92-95
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.195911  
Context/Background: Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease, in which bacteria play a major role. Capnocytophaga species form a part of human oral flora both in health and disease. They have been implicated as putative periodontal pathogens, and yet, they are less understood members of plaque flora. No studies have been conducted on the association of Capnocytophaga species with periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Capnocytophaga species in patients with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis using culture method. Methods: Forty patients each with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from all the patients using sterile curettes and transferred to transport medium and sent to the laboratory. The plaque samples were inoculated on blood agar and trypticase-blood-bacitracin-polymyxin agar to grow Capnocytophaga species. Later, Gram-staining and microscopy were done to confirm the presence of Capnocytophaga in each sample. The prevalence of Capnocytophaga species was statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Capnocytophaga was detected in 21 (52.50%) samples out of 40 samples of gingivitis group, 11 (27.50%) samples of healthy group, and 12 (30%) samples of periodontitis group. Conclusions: Capnocytophaga is more prevalent in gingivitis compared to healthy periodontium and periodontitis. Capnocytophaga has the potential to cause periodontal disease, but as it is less competitive in the periodontal pocket, it is usually overgrown by other rapidly growing bacteria.
  4 3,066 371
Four years prospective study of the maxillofacial trauma at a tertiary center in Western Nepal
Rajib Khadka, Nitesh Kr Chaurasia
July-December 2014, 6(2):78-81
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.143044  
Purpose: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial trauma in the Western region of Nepal. Materials and Methods: All the trauma patients attending the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery in 4 years period at a tertiary center in Western Nepal were included in the study. The incidence, prevalence, age and sex distribution, etiologies and types as well as seasonal and daily variation of maxillofacial trauma were studied. Results: Maxillofacial trauma with male (71.55%) predominance was seen. Road traffic accidents (RTA, 46.5%) were the most common cause, and 41.65% of fracture cases due to RTA were under the influence of alcohol. Accidents were more common on the rural roads (38.9%), and majorities (43.3%) were due to motorcycle accidents. They were more common on Friday (36.7%) and in winter seasons (51.2%). The mandible fractures (65.85%) were more common than midface fractures (53.58%) and 19.44% of the fractures were combined fractures. Parasymphysis in mandible (32.16%) and zygoma (39.09%) in midface were the most common type of fracture. Conclusion: The increased incidence of maxillofacial trauma following RTA under the influence of alcohol noted in this study reveals the need for formulating preventive measures in the Western region of Nepal. Need to aware people to avoid drink and drive proper traffic management, prevention of carrying excessive passengers, especially on the rooftop of vehicles on the highway and disposal of out of date vehicles and timely maintenance of faulty roads is a must.
  4 3,467 2,487
Efficacy of pentoxifylline in the management of oral submucous fibrosis
Santosh Patil, Sneha Maheshwari
July-December 2014, 6(2):94-98
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.143048  
Aim: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of newer drug pentoxifylline in the management of OSMF. Materials and Methods: A total of 106 subjects with clinic-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in two groups, Group A (pentoxifylline group) and Group B (placebo group). Group A was administered 400 mg pentoxifylline twice daily and Group B was given multivitamins for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The patients in Group A showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) in all the parameters measured, mouth opening, tongue protrusion, pain associated with the condition, burning sensation and difficulty in speech and swallowing. However, few patients from Group A complained of bloating, nausea, anxiety and dyspepsia. Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and tongue protrusion, thereby improving the quality of life of the affected individuals.
  4 7,476 827
CASE REPORTS
Mucous membrane pemphigoid with exclusive gingival involvement: Report of a case and review of literature
Shamimul Hasan, Bhumika Kapoor, Ayesha Siddiqui, Himangi Srivastava, Sifat Fatima, Yusra Akhtar
January-June 2012, 4(1):64-69
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.99884  
According to Sir William Osler, Mouth is the mirror of the body which reflects systemic ­diseases. The oral mucosa may be affected by a variety of mucocutaneous diseases and oral lesions may occur first or very early in several mucocutaneous disorders. The erosive gingival lesions associated with vesiculobullous diseases such as lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris have been collectively referred to as "Desquamative gingivitis" (DG). Gingival desquamation is a clinical sign in which the gingiva appears reddish, painful, glazed and friable with destruction of the epithelium. This gingival desquamation is due to various disease processes in gingiva. The disease process may be a localized disease of gingiva or a systemic disease which manifests in the gingiva. It is important to be aware of this rare clinical entity so as to distinguish DG from plaque induced gingivitis which is an extremely common condition, easily recognized and treated daily by the dental surgeon. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these lesions may greatly diminish or reverse disease progression. Here by, we present a case of mucous membrane pemphigoid presenting as gingival desquamation in a 45 year old female. Our patient presented with generalized erythematous gingiva and gingival desquamation involving the free, attached and marginal gingiva of left maxillary and mandibular dentition. However, other mucosal and skin involvement was not appreciated in the present case. Thorough history, clinical examination, histopathology and immunofluorescence studies helped us to arrive at the diagnosis of this rare sub-epithelial blistering disorder.
  3 6,055 548
Solitary osteoma of body of the mandible
Saba Khan, Laxmikanth Chatra, K Prashanth Shenai, Sreeja P Kumar
January-June 2013, 5(1):58-60
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.113703  
Osteomas are relatively rare benign osteogenic neoplasm's characterized by the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone. Osteomas can develop as peripheral (periosteal) masses attached to the cortical plates or as central lesions arising from endosteal bone surfaces. Although multiple osteomas of the jaws are a hallmark of Gardner's syndrome (familial adenomatous polyposis), non-syndromic cases are typically solitary. The purpose of this paper is to present a large peripheral osteoma originating from the buccal surface of the mandible and causing asymmetry in a 35-year-old woman.
  3 4,958 302
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Image analyses of collagen types and thickness in oral sub mucous fibrosis stained with picrosirius red under polarizing microscope
Venkatesh V Kamath, Krishnanand Satelur, Y Komali, Shruthi S Krishnamurthy
July-December 2013, 5(2):123-127
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.124258  
Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant oral disorder leading to increased fibrosis in the sub-epithelial layer. The collagen in the condition has been a subject of intense scrutiny in an attempt to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim: The present study aims to quantify and qualify the collagen fibers in different histological grades of OSF using picrosirius red stain under the polarizing microscope. The quantification of the fibrosis was carried out using image analysis software and the fibers were graded according to staining hue and intensity into their respective subtypes. Comparison was done with normal mucosa, scar/keloid tissue samples. Materials and Methods: The present study included OSF (n = 50) of differing histological grades, keloid/scar (n = 4) and normal mucosa (n = 6) as control cases. Histological assessment was performed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Picrosirius red stained slides were observed under a polarizing microscope for assessment of collagen subtypes. Quantification of collagen was done under polarizing microscope and image parameters were analyzed using ProReg® Capture Pro 2.8.8 (Lawrence and Mayo India Pvt Ltd, 2011) image analysis software. Results: The epithelial thickness in OSF, scar and keloid is less than that of normal mucosa and progressive decrease in the epithelial thickness is seen in the successive stages of OSF. The fibrosis increases with increasing grades of OSF, was higher in scar and keloid and was highly statistically significant. Type I collagen was more predominant in all stages of OSF, in normal oral mucosa and scar/keloid tissue samples as compared with type III. Though quantitative analysis of the collagen types I and III is possible, with picrosirius red qualitative analysis is an arduous task. The specificity of detection of collagen subtypes was acceptable with the picrosirius red stain, but the sensitivity left a lot to be desired.
  3 4,720 556
Impact of oral diseases on quality of life in subjects attending out-patient department of a dental hospital, India
N Saimadhavi, M. A. K. V. Raju, R Sudhakara Reddy, T Ramesh, D Ayesha Tabassum, K Ramya
January-June 2013, 5(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.113690  
Context: Currently there is a growing interest in oral health outcomes in how oral health affects quality of life. When oral health related quality of life measures are used alongside traditional clinical methods of measuring oral health status, a more comprehensive assessment of the impact of oral diseases on the several dimensions of subjective wellbeing becomes possible. In this context, we attempted to study the impact of oral diseases on quality of life, so as to address the patient's needs in an appropriate way and thereby improving one's quality of life. Aims: To evaluate the impact of different oral diseases on quality of life using a modified OHIP-14 questionnaire, so as to address the patient's needs in an appropriate way and thereby improving one's quality of life. Settings and Design: The study was carried out among 302 subjects, attending the outpatient department a dental hospital, India, for check up and treatment of their oral condition. Subjects aged above 20 years, who gave their consent for the study were included. Materials and Methods: The study sample was categorized in to two groups based upon the duration of the affecting disease - group 1 consisted of subjects suffering with chronic diseases and group 2 of subjects suffering with acute diseases. All the subjects were asked to fill up their responses in the given OHIP-14 questionnaires. The completed questionnaires were then collected and statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: To evaluate the role of age on QOL, age was divided in to 2 groups using median split procedure. For inter and intragroup comparisions, independent sample t test, anova followed by post hoc test and Chi-square tests were employed. Results: Chi square test revealed a moderately impaired quality of life among all the diseases investigated. On comparing the mean domain and total OHIP score between the two groups, the domain of psychological discomfort and disability and the total OHIP score showed statistically significant values in acute diseases. However, no significant differences were obtained on comparing the grades of QOL in between the two groups. Conclusions: Oral health related quality of life is moderately impaired among those suffering with oral diseases. Routine evaluation using patient centred measures like Oral health Impact Profile during clinical activity is feasible, and provides relevant and useful information for the clinical management of patients with oral mucosa pathology.
  3 2,559 380
REVIEW ARTICLES
Anterior point of reference: Current knowledge and perspectives in prosthodontics
Prince Kumar, Ashish Kumar, Roshni Goel, Ashish Khattar
July-December 2012, 4(2):96-99
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.106195  
The opening and closing mandibular axis is not a purely theoretical postulation, but an absolutely demonstrable biomechanical entity. It is very crucial to accurately record and transfer to articulators for the purpose of maxillofacial rehabilitation. Following the Face bow record and transfer of the mandibular axis to an anatomic articulator, we can then mount the casts so that they open and close on the articulator in the same fashion as the patient's jaws. For this reason one of the fixed factors presented by the patient is taken into the consideration, which if properly considered, can be of inestimable value in all phases of dental treatment. This paper has sought to review the current concepts and practical implications regarding anterior point of reference in prosthodontics.
  3 21,386 3,150
Therapeutic ultrasound - The healing sound and its applications in oral diseases: The review of literature
Jyothirmai Koneru, Ravikiran Alaparthi, Samatha Yalamanchali, R Sudhakara Reddy
January-June 2012, 4(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.99873  
The application of medical ultrasound was mainly centered on the soft tissue diagnostic imaging until now. Recently, its use has been widened and adopted for various therapeutic purposes. It has been reported to facilitate the healing of bone fractures, wounds, apthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. In addition, ultrasound has also been shown to facilitate delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumors, promote gene therapy to targeted tissues, and deliver thrombolytic drugs into blood clots. This article reviews the principles and current status of ultrasound-based treatments.
  3 4,590 748
Diabetes mellitus and oral health
T Radhika, Ranganathan Kannan
January-June 2012, 4(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/0975-8844.99874  
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of diabetes with an emphasis on periodontal disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders and pre-term birth. Dental considerations for management of these patients and recent advances in the dental field with respect to diabetes are also highlighted.
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* Source: CrossRef
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